January 24, 1818, Conduit Street, London, England.

August 6, 1886, East Grinstead (near London), England.

St. Swithun’s Church, East Grinstead, England.


We know John Ma­son Neale today as a hymn­o­graph­er, the translator or adapter of ancient and medieval hymns. It is by the hymns below and similar hymns that most of us know Neale, if we know him at all. But Neale’s achievements in other areas as well deserve our recognition.

Neale was born in Lon­don, England, the son of a clergyman, his father dying when he was five years old.

At Cam­bridge (1836–40), Neale became a High Church­man, and developed a fascination with church architecture. Even at this youthful age, Neale participated in the catholic revival of the Established Church, as he and some friends founded the Cam­bridge Cam­den Society of antiquarians. Their periodical promptly addressed itself to the dilapidated condition of many English church buildings; their recommendations were very influential in the Victorian campaign of church construction, and they came to have many supporters in Church ranks.

Americans apt to think affectionately of the tastefulness and charm of English churches will be impressed by the descriptions of ruinous buildings encountered by Neale and his contemporaries.

Neale also crusaded against the ugly stoves that were placed in some churches to heat them. One issue of The Ec­cle­si­ol­o­gist, for example, recorded a large Ar­nott stove in the middle of the chancel, whose flue rose to the height of the priest and crossed his face before exiting the building via a hole in the glass of the north window. Neale especially raged against the high walled box pews—pues or pens, the Society called them—where wealthy families sequestered themselves in the midst of the common people. In their pews, they might recline at their ease upon sofas, and one local aristocrat even ate lunch during the service.

The Cam­bridge Society championed the cause of Vic­tor­ian Gothic. The edition of a medieval text on ecclesiastical symbolism that Neale and a friend prepared set forth their convictions about architectural details.

Neale’s health prevented his remaining a parish priest (he was ordained in May 1842), but, in his semi-invalidism, he had much time for antiquarian and scholarly endeavor. From May 1846 on, he was Warden of Sack­ville College, an institution resembling that of a fictional Vic­tor­i­an clergyman, An­thony Trol­lope’s Warden, Sep­ti­mus Hard­ing. Like Hard­ing, Neale gave much thought to church music.

Neale held that the hymns of Isaac Watts and other popular composers imparted erroneous doctrine, as well as offending against taste. So in 1842, for example, Neale produced Hymns for Children. However, aside from his carol Good King Wen­ces­las, it is not Neale’s original compositions that are most widely recognized, but his translations and adaptations of ancient and medieval works, which he worked on throughout his life. The various editions of the annotated hymnal he and his associates prepared—the Hymnal Noted—and his hymns of the Orthodox churches have contributed hymns such as those listed above. It is estimated Neale and his collaborators produced over 400 hymns, sequences and carols.

Another object of Neale’s interest was the history of the Eastern Churches. In 1847, Neale’s book on the Pa­tri­arch­ate of Al­ex­an­dria appeared. In 1850, it was followed by a General Introduction to the Orthodox church of the East. A third volume, edited by George Will­iams, appeared in 1873.

One aspect of Neale’s outlook not dwelt upon much by his biographers is his conviction that divine judgment was the lot of those who appropriated property that had been consecrated. With an associate, in 1846 he published, anonymously, an updated edition of Sir Hen­ry Spel­man’s History of Sacrilege. The book shows how disasters, the failure of the male line, and/or great excesses of moral depravity came upon persons who took land that had been given to the Church, or their successors. When such lands had belonged to the Church, revenues from these lands had been employed to feed the hungry as well as to support the sometimes luxurious way of life of certain clergymen. Here we see the antiquarian and the man of Christian compassion united.

Such a union is very evident in Neale’s foundation of the Society of St. Mar­ga­ret, one of the first An­gli­can conventual sisterhoods (1855). As Warden of Sack­ville College at East Grin­stead, Neale came to know the poverty of some of the nearby villagers. Fever victims might die unattended. So his sisters of charity began their work, with Neale as their pastor-confessor-administrator. However, the sisterhood was verbally and even physically attacked as a wedge of Ro­man­ism in the Eng­lish Church.

In 1857, the Lewes Riot occurred, instigated by an Evan­gel­i­cal clergyman whose daughter had been one of the Sisters, and who had died of scarlet fever, bequeathing 400 pounds to the Society. Neale was used to opposition by then. Years before the Society’s foundation, Neale had been inhibited by the Bishop of Chi­ches­ter from exercising his priestly duties in the village, evidently on account of the bishop’s resentment of Neale’s church furnishings, etc., at Sack­ville College.

John Mason Neale had his lighter side, too, as evidenced by a joke he once played on John Ke­ble. As related by Neale’s associate Ger­ard Moul­trie and quoted in A. G. Lough, The Influence of John Mason Neale (London, SPCK 1962, p. 95):

[Neale] was invited by Mr. Ke­ble and the Bishop of Sal­is­bury to assist them with their new Hymnal, and for this reason he paid a visit to Hurs­ley Par­son­age [Ke­ble’s residence]…[Ke­ble] related that having to go to another room to find some papers he was detained a short time. On his return, Dr. Neale said, Why Ke­ble! I thought you told me that the Chris­tian Year was entirely original! Yes, he answered, it certainly is. Then how comes this? And Dr. Neale placed before him the La­tin of one of Ke­ble’s hymns for a Saint’s day—I think it was for St. Luke’s. Ke­ble professed himself utterly confounded. There was the Eng­lish, which he knew that he had made, and there too no less certainly was the La­tin, with far too unpleasant a resemblance to his own to be fortuitous. He protested that he had never seen this original, no, not in all his life! etc. etc. After a few minutes, Neale relieved him by owning that he had just turned it into La­tin in his absence.

Never in his lifetime was Neale adequately appreciated in his own church. Neale’s Doctor of Divinity degree was conferred by Trinity College, Hart­ford, Con­nec­ti­cut, in 1860. At Neale’s funeral the highest ranking clergymen were Orthodox. Neale could never have guessed how much he accomplished for the church and for generations of Chris­tians who would sing the hymns he gave them.

  1. Time to Watch, a Time to Pray, A
  2. With Thee, O Lord, Begins the Year
  3. World Itself Keeps Easter Day, The
  1. Again the Lord’s Own Day Is Here
  2. All Glory, Laud, and Honor
  3. Alleluia, Song of Gladness
  4. Almighty God, Who from the Flood
  5. And Wilt Thou Pardon, Lord
  6. Around the Throne of God a Band
  7. Art Thou Weary, Art Thou Languid?
  8. As Jonah, Issuing from His Three Days’ Tomb
  9. Be Present, Holy Trinity
  10. Blessed City, Heavenly Salem
  11. Blessed Feasts of Blessèd Martyrs
  12. Blessèd Savior, Who Hast Taught Me
  13. Brief Life Is Here Our Portion
  14. Christ Is Born! Tell Forth His Fame!
  15. Christ Is Made the Sure Foundation
  16. Christ Was Born on Christmas Day
  17. Christ’s Own Martyrs, Valiant Cohort
  18. Christian, Dost Thou See Them?
  19. Come, Holy Ghost, with God the Son
  20. Come, Thou Holy Par­a­clete
  21. Come, Thou Redeemer of the Earth
  22. Come, Ye Faithful, Raise the Anthem
  23. Come, Ye Faithful, Raise the Strain
  24. Creator of the Stars of Night
  25. Day, A Day of Glory, A
  26. Day Is Past and Over, The
  27. Day, O Lord, Is Spent, The
  28. Day of Resurrection, The
  29. Dewy Freshness That the Furnace Flings, The
  30. Draw Nigh and Take the Body of the Lord
  31. Eternal Gifts of Christ the King, The
  32. Eternal Glory of the Sky
  33. Eternal Monarch, King Most High
  34. Fast, as Taught by Holy Lore, The
  35. Father of Peace, and God of Consolation
  36. Fierce Was the Wild Billow
  37. Finished Is the Battle Now
  38. Foe Behind, the Deep Before, The
  39. For Thee, O Dear, Dear Country
  40. From Church to Church
  41. From God the Father, Virgin-Born
  42. From Lands That See the Sun Arise
  43. Gabriel, from the Heaven Descending
  44. Gabriel’s Message
  45. God the Father! Whose Creation
  46. God Whom Earth, and Sea, and Sky, The
  47. Good Christian Men, Rejoice
  48. Good King Wen­ces­las
  49. Great and Mighty Wonder, A
  50. Great Forerunner of the Morn, The
  51. Heavenly Word Proceeding Forth, The
  52. Here Is Joy for Every Age
  53. Him, of the Father’s Very Essence
  54. Holy Children Boldly Stand, The
  55. Holy Father, Thou Hast Taught Me
  56. How Vain the Cruel Her­od’s Fear
  57. Hymn for Conquering Martyrs Raise, The
  58. If There Be That Skills to Reckon
  59. In Days of Old on Si­nai
  60. Into the Dim Earth’s Lowest Parts Descending
  61. Jerusalem the Golden
  62. Jesu! Names All Names Above
  63. Jesu, the Father’s Only Son
  64. Jesu! The Very Thought Is Sweet!
  65. Jesu, the Virgins’ Crown
  66. Joy Dawned Again on Easter Day
  67. Lamb’s High Banquet We Await, The
  68. Let Our Choir New Anthems Raise
  69. Let Us Now Our Voices Raise
  70. Let Us Rise in Early Morning
  71. Lift Up, Lift Up Your Voices Now
  72. Light’s Abode, Celestial Salem
  73. Light’s Glittering Morn Bedecks the Sky
  74. Lo! Now Is Our Accepted Day
  75. Lord and King of All Things, The
  76. Maker of Earth, to Thee Alone
  77. Merits of the Saints, The
  78. Now That the Daylight Fills the Sky
  79. Now to Our Savior Let Us Raise
  80. O Blest Creator of the Light
  81. O Come, O Come, Em­man­u­el
    • Draw Nigh, Draw Nigh, Em­man­u­el
  82. O God, Creation’s Secret Force
  83. O God, of All the Strength and Power
  84. O God of Truth, O Lord of Might
  85. O God, Thy Soldiers’ Crown and Guard
  86. O God, We Raise Our Hearts to Thee
  87. O Happy Band of Pilgrims
  88. O Lord of Hosts, Whose Glory Fills
  89. O Merciful Creator, Hear
  90. O Sons and Daughters, Let Us Sing!
  91. O Thou Who by a Star Didst Guide
  92. O Thou Who Through This Holy Week
  93. O Trinity of Bless­èd Light
  94. O Unity of Threefold Light
  95. O Very God of Very God
  96. O What Their Joy and Their Glory Must Be
  97. O Wondrous Mystery, Full of Passing Grace
  98. O Wondrous Sight!
  99. Of the Father’s Love Begotten
  100. Our Father’s Home Eternal
  101. Raise, Raise Thine Eye a Little Way
  102. Rod of the Root of Jes­se
  103. Royal Banners Forward Go, The
  104. Royal Day That Chas­eth Gloom
  105. Safe Home, Safe Home in Port!
  106. Saint of God, Elect and Precious
  107. Sing, My Tongue, the Glorious Battle
  108. Stars of the Morning
  109. Strain Upraise of Joy and Praise, The
  110. Th’Abyss of Many a Former Sin
  111. That Eas­ter­tide with Joy Was Bright
  112. That Fearful Day
  113. Thee, O Christ, the Father’s Splendor
  114. They Whose Course on Earth Is O’er
  115. Those Eternal Bowers
  116. Thou Hallowed Chosen Morn of Praise
  117. To the Name of Our Salvation
  118. To Thee Before the Close of Day
  119. Triumphs of the Saints, The
  120. We Have Not Seen, We Cannot See
  121. When Christ’s Appearing Was Made Known
  122. Whence Shall My Tears Begin?
  123. Wingèd Herald of the Day, The
  124. With Christ We Share a Mystic Grave
  125. World Is Very Evil, The
  126. Yesterday, with Exultation