Ju­ly 20, 1031, Melun, France.

Saint-Denis, France.

Robert, called Ro­bert the Sage and Ro­bert the Devout, succeeded his father, Hugh Ca­pet, on the throne of France around 997. He has been called the gentlest monarch that ever sat upon a throne, and his amiability of character poorly prepared him to cope with his dangerous and wily adversaries. His last years were embittered by the opposition of his own sons, and the political agitations of the times…Ro­bert possessed a reflective mind, and was fond of learning and musical art. He was both a poet and a musician. He was deeply religious, and, from unselfish motives, was much devoted to the church…He himself was a chorister; and there was no kingly service that he seemed to love so well. We are told that it was his custom to go to the church of St. De­nis, and in his royal robes, with his crown upon his head, to direct the choir at matins and vespers, and join in the singing. Few kings have left a better legacy to the Chris­tian church.

Brown, p. 57–58

  1. Veni, Sanc­te Spir­it­us